Stormwater treatment wetlands are widely recognized as efficient and cost-effective solutions to growing stormwater problems. This study presented a new approach to evaluating the current status and trends in stormwater treatment wetlands research. The annual scientific productivity of different states was identified using a bibliometric analysis approach. The number of publications related to stormwater treatment wetlands has exhibited an increasing trend since the earliest record of publication. USA and China were among the states that had the most number of stormwater treatment wetlands-related publications and international collaborations. In terms of the population-to-publication ratio, Australia, Canada, and South Korea were found to have a higher level of scientific productivity. Analysis of frequently used keywords and terms in scientific publications revealed that the efficiency of stormwater treatment wetlands and the processes involved in the removal of nutrients and trace elements were adequately investigated; however, inquiries on the removal of organic micropollutants and emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, microplastics, and industrial compounds, among others, are still lacking. Through the comprehensive review of related scientific works, the design, components, and primary factors affecting the performance of stormwater treatment wetlands were also identified. Future works that address the aforementioned knowledge gaps are recommended to optimize the benefits of stormwater treatment wetlands.