Nepheloid layers are widely distributed in the marine environment, and their formation and evolution pose many challenges to the current understanding of ocean dynamics and marine sedimentology. In sediment transport processes, nepheloid layers significantly contribute to the exchange of sediment between the continental shelf and the slope. In this paper, we summarize the global research trends on nepheloid layers. In total, 689 publications from 1990 to 2022 were collected from the Web of Science and analyzed using bibliographic software, including Bibliometrix, VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and CorText. Based on these publications, past and present popular research on nepheloid layers is examined and evaluated. The trends in nepheloid layer research are summarized by analyzing keywords, article references, countries, institutions, and authors. Finally, prospects and several key questions related to nepheloid layers are concluded, which can potentially guide future studies. The bibliographic analysis can provide new insights into the history of nepheloid layers. The results also provide valuable information for other researchers and programs investigating geological, geophysical, and biogeochemical processes.