Previous studies on the sharing economy have not utilized bibliometrics to classify the main stakeholders from the perspective of operations research (OR). In this study, we utilize the bibliometric method to review the supply side, demand side, the platform, and their optimization models. Based on the bibliometric network, we propose a complete multi-level framework to study the optimization decisions of stakeholders and the key factors that may influence optimal decisions in the sharing economy. The pricing, behavioral characteristics, operating strategies, and incentive methods of the three stakeholders will affect the optimal decisions and models. Multi-party interaction significantly affects the decision-making behavior of stakeholders. The sharing economy introduces a new business model to traditional industrial applications, such as transportation and trade, and has both positive and negative effects on the economy, environment, and society. We identify future research in the ecosystem of the sharing economy, hybrid methods, and breakthrough technologies, such as blockchain, AI, and data-driven optimization.